Изучение английского языка онлайн > Перечень наиболее употребительных аффиксов существительных, прилагательных, глаголов и наречий в современном английском языке

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Перечень наиболее употребительных аффиксов существительных, прилагательных, глаголов и наречий в современном английском языке

    A.           Typical noun suffixes:

  1. (NOUNS INDICATING PERSONS)   -er, as in - driver, employer, examiner, writer, player, occupier, runner, beginner, traveller and in compounds, on the pattern of shopkeeper, wage-earner, music lover. -er may sometimes indicate the thing that performs the action, as in cooker, dryer, lighter, roller, screwdriver, tape-recorder. -or, instead of -er, as in - actor, collector, editor, protector, sailor, visitor. -ее, as in - employee (someone who is employed);  examinee, referee (someone who is referred to), refugee (someone who is forced to take refuge). -ar, as in -  beggar, liar; -ant, as in - assistant, attendant, servant -ist, as in - chemist, scientist, typist.  

  • (abstract nouns derived from verbs)

  -age, eg -  breakage, drainage, leakage -al,   eg -  approval, arrival, refusal -ANCE, eg - acceptance, appearance, performance -eryeg-  delivery, discovery, recovery -ment, eg - agreement, arrangement, employment -sion, eg - collision, decision, division -tion, eg - education, organisation, attention, solution -ure, eg - departure, failure, closure   3. (abstract NOUNS DERIVED FROM ADJECTIVES)   -ance, -ence, eg   - importance; absence, presence -ity,                     eg   -   ability, activity, equality -ness,             eg  -    darkness, happiness, kindness -th,                 eg  -     length, strength, truth    

B. Typical adjectival suffixes:   - able, eg -  comfortable, drinkable, eatable, unsteerable; (regret) regrettable, (forget) unforgettable (but'preferable1), (rely) reliable, (deny) undeniable, (note) notable, (love) lovable', (but, when the base ends in -ee,-ce or –ge) agreeable, manageable, noticeable -al, eg. -  cultural, medical, musical -ible, eg. -  legible, sensible, visible -1C, eg. -atomic, heroic, scientific -ish, eg. - childish, foolish, selfish. The suffix -ish is often added, especially to adjectives of colour, eg - brownish, whitish, reddish, to convey the meaning 'not definitely brown but approaching that condition or quality'. -ive, eg. - attractive, expensive, productive -ful, eg. - careful, useful. beautiful but playful, skilful, wilful -less, eg. -  careless, helpless, useless', -ly, eg. - brotherly, deadly, elderly, fatherly, friendly, goodly, likely, lively, lonely, lovely, lowly, motherly, poorly, -OUS, eg. -  dangerous, poisonous, (courage) courageous; (space) spacious; (vigour) vigorous;  gaseous, piteous -Y, eg. - dirty, dusty, sleepy, funny, muddy, woody, woolly, stony.  Many adjectives are formed on this model, especially when the base is a monosyllabic mass noun.   Other typical adjective endings are found in suburban, elegant, circular, wooden, dependent, martial, economical, pretentious.      

C. Typical verb suffixes:   -ate, pronounced /eit/, as in - approximate, calculate, educate, estimate, separate. -en, added mainly to monosyllabic adjectives or nouns:   adjective                                                              verb  black    fat    wide                           blacken    fatten    widen. NOUN height   length   strength               heighten   lengthen   strengthen   -ify, as in -  certify, identify, simplify -ise-ize (preferred thus in American English), as in  - modernise, publicise, recognise.     D. Typical adverbial suffixes:   -LY, eg. – clearly, frequently, recently, careful(ly),  skilful(ly), civil(ly), cool(ly), (busy) busily, (happy) happily, (dry) drily, (day) daily, (gay) gaily, (able) ably, (suitable) suitably, (gentle) gently, (simple) simply, (wise) wisely, (sole) solely, (due) duly, (true) truly, (whole) wholly; eg: ' 1. Your writing is clear. You write clearly. 2. Frequent accidents are those that happen frequently. 3 .Recent events are those that have occurred recently.   -ALLY, eg. - automatic(ally) basic(ally) scientific(ally)   A-, eg -  aboard, abreast, abroad, afar, afresh, aloud, anew, apart, ashore, aside, astray, as in:   aboard 4 They have gone      abroad   astray.       



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